Steve Cooke

measuring the boundaries of our nation by the sun

Is the UK’s Work Programme a form of forced Labour?


In the news today is the story that the government acted unlawfully in requiring a woman to work for Poundland for two weeks in order to receive her unemployment benefits.

The judge ruled that the government acted unlawfully for the following reasons: ‘not giving the unemployed enough information about the penalties they faced and their rights to appeal against being made to work unpaid for.’

However, the government minister concerned, Mark Hoban, is quoted responding the claim that her treatment amounted to forced labour. This in itself is interesting, because the Guardian and other campaigners against the Work Programme appear to be treating the judgement as affirmation of this claim. The quotes in the Guardian article clearly show that the judgement does no such thing, but given that this is the issue that everyone’s most interested in, I thought I’d reflect upon it myself (and then inflict my musings on the rest of you).

Under the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (which the UK is signed-up to), forced labour counts as:

all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily’ but excludes ‘ any work or service which forms part of the normal civic obligations of the citizens of a fully self-governing country

I suspect that Hoban might claim a) that signing up for the Job Seekers Agreement (JSA) counts as offering oneself voluntarily, and b) that is might also count as part of the normal civic obligations. I think the latter sounds ropey, but the former less so. The sanction for not working is up to 26 weeks of loss of benefits. However, if I go to the Job Centre and tell them I’ve not been looking for work, and I don’t intend to look for work, and they can go screw themselves, then they will remove my benefit. That sounds like it has some similarities with the Work Programme case. To claim JSA I must first sign the Jobseekers Agreement, in other words I make a promise to do certain things, I sign a contract. What the judge has said in the case above is that the terms of the agreement were not sufficiently spelled out and so the contract is not binding. What that doesn’t mean is that the Work Programme is necessarily a form of forced labour. If the benefits provided by the JSA are given on the understanding that I must be seeking work, that I will work if I can, and that I must do what I can to improve the chances of my getting work, then it seems to me that calling the Work Programme ‘Forced Labour’ might be going to far.

One reply to that might be to say that signing up to JSA isn’t really voluntary since the alternative is pretty terrible, but then that could result in an argument that no claimant would have duties to comply with any of the rules of JSA because their acceptance of them was not voluntary. I think this probably stretches the concept of voluntariness though since there’s no coercion or duress involved in signing on, and the unpleasant alternative (lack of money) is not a threat imposed by the government.

One might also reply that if the terms were not clear, i.e. that the job seeker was unaware when signing on that they would be required to enter the Work Programme, then their labour cannot be considered voluntary. This seems like a valid argument, but I’m not convinced, given the widespread coverage of the scheme, that is a strong one. A job-seeker might not have been aware of all of the details of the Work Programme, but it’s questionable that that amounts to not knowing about the obligation at all.

All this is not to say that the Work Programme is right, or that the way that this lady was treated does not deserve criticism. But, I’m not at all sure right to claim that it’s forced labour.

Not only that, but I’m more than a bit worried that the comparison of 2 weeks work in Poundland as a requirement to receive JSA with slavery is actually rather offensive to all of those who really have been enslaved. I worry that the debate surrounding this case may diminish the moral horror of real slavery, and that a misunderstanding about the nature of benefits plays into co-opting the outrage felt at slavery for an attack on something else.

So, this post is a call for clarity about what the wrongs are in a particular case.  In order to form the correct response to a situation, and one that coheres with our other moral judgements, it’s important to seek that clarity. If we’re going to focus on what’s wrong in this case then perhaps good starting points would be:

  • It’s wrong not to be fully clear about all of the details of a contract.
  • It seems wrong (and stupidly inflexible) to require someone to stop voluntary work in a post relevant to their qualifications in order to spend two weeks unpaid working in somewhere that isn’t (unless the extent of that voluntary work prevented active job-seeking).

Those things are bad, but they’re nowhere near as bad as slavery.


Author: Steve Cooke

I work in normative ethics, specialising in animal and environmental ethics and political philosophy.

8 thoughts on “Is the UK’s Work Programme a form of forced Labour?

  1. This is an embarrassingly poor analysis – perhaps your time would be better spent doing an extended unpaid work trial.

    • I always find that when attacking someone’s argument it helps to give reasons for your disagreement. Perhaps you have some of them? Having reasons marks you out as something other than just an anonymous rude person turning up to yell ‘yah boo, sucks to you,’ do a bit of trolling, and then bugger off to crap in some other corner of the Internet.

  2. you mention nothing of the wrongs of huge companies benefiting ( possibly ) from free staff for a fortnight , a free , no obligation trial , of potential employees , in the unlikely event of 1 of the ‘victims’ being eminently suitable for hiring , ( unlikely to happen ‘cos they can have many more free victims to exploit for free without obligation , ) this leads into questions of insurance provided by these companies to their free staff , should ( heaven forbid ) one of them being injured whilst in their ’employment ‘ – only it is NOT employment ‘cos it is ‘ VOLUNTARY ! – that puts the whole scheme into a different league – brim full of ‘GREY ‘ areas , pitfalls & dubious law .

    and where does a ( possibly not-to-well educated ) young & in-experienced jobseeker stand when ‘FORCED ‘ to ‘VOLUNTEER’ themselves into an entirely unsuitable ‘VACANCY’ ? such as a vegetarian being ‘placed’ in a meat-packing factory ?
    NO , the scheme is a bad one , it must be scrapped forthwith . jobseekers need real jobs , suitable to their skills , education & ethics , paid & employed on proper contracts – even if only short term ones .

    • You’re quite right, I’ve not mentioned those things: I’ve not mentioned them because the post is not intended to be an all things considered judgement about whether the scheme is a good one, or to identify all of the features of the scheme that might be wrong. I set out to explore one area of the debate that bothered be, so you shouldn’t be surprised that I didn’t devote any space to a question I wasn’t trying to answer. I may well be that the scheme is a terrible one for all of the reasons you give (although whether it addresses your concerns is an open question given that neither of us has checked), but that’s an entirely separate – interesting and important, but still separate – discussion.

      • did anyone hear the outcome of the girls court case ? was it hushed up for being too embarrassing to the dwp ?

      • Hi Trevor. The outcome is outlined in the link that’s in the first sentence of the post – the court ruled that the DWP had acted unlawfully by failing to make clear what the obligations of JSA applicants were vis a vis the Work Programme (at least, that’s what the Guardian said of the judgement). Hence the blog post!

  3. hi my name is doug i have just been forced to go on a 30hr pw work program ,i am 49 years old and have worked in the building trade driving machines most of my life after telling advisers that i want to get back to what i normally do after a break of a couple of years from a heart attack ,the job they have put me in is working in a charity pet shop where are the prospects in that ? this is forced labour

    • That sounds like a bad situation Doug, and thanks for posting. But, could you tell me where you think my argument is wrong rather than just making an undefended statement please? When you say you were forced, do you mean to say that someone compelled you against your will to sign-on, or do you mean that you felt like that alternative choices that you had were too bad to take? If the latter, then were those undesirable choices created by the DWP? It seems to me that lots of people conflate having a poor set of options with being coerced, and those things are not always synonymous. Perhaps this is because the word ‘forced’ can carry multiple meanings. If someone tells me to shoplift or they will shoot me then I am coerced, but if I have to choose between hunger and shoplifting, then I’m not coerced. The term ‘forced labour’ means ‘coerced labour’ whereas I think you, and many others, are using the term in the sense of ‘forced by necessity’. In the former sense, we may identify a blameworthy party who carries out the coercion, in the latter things are much more complex.

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